The Most Holy Rosary of the BVM by Paul McLachlan
The Rosary is an incredibly powerful prayer. This article explains how to say the Rosary, as well as providing some of its history.
See also: St Dominic and the Rosary
The Miserere is the great penitential psalm: "Have mercy on me, O God, in your kindness; in your compassion, blot our my offence..."
"Pater", "Ave", "Gloria" and more...
A litany is the repetitive invocation of Our Lord, Our Lady or Saints under their various titles. Some of the more common litanies are provided here.